The Complete Bibliography & Acknowledgements
of the Novel Nihshabdo Pahar
"The Silent Mountain"
Shuvadeep Barua



  1. Afridi, Dr. Q. K. (1998). Literary Heritage of Khyber: Past and Present. Peshawar, Pakistan: University of Peshawar.

  2. Ahmad, Aisha & Boase, Roger. (1st ed. 2003), (Saqi Books, Beirut). Pashtun Tales: From the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier. (2008) Beirut, Lebanon: Saqi Books.

  3. Ahmad, Atif Ahmad. (2006). Structural Interrelations of Theory and Practice in Islamic law: A Study of Six Works of Medieval Islamic Jurisprudence. London, UK: Brill.

  4. Aiyangar, N. (1st ed. 1898), (Caxton Press, Bangalore). Essays on Indo-Aryan Mythology, (vol-I), (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Chicago University Press.

  5. Alam, Muzaffar. & Subrahmanyam, S. (2011). Writing the Mughal World: Studies on Culture and Politics. (2011) USA: Columbia University Press.

  6. Alami, Mohammed Hamdouni. (2011). Art Architecture in Islamic Tradition: Aesthetics, Politics and Desire in Early Islam. (2011) London, UK: I. B. Tauris.

  7. Ali Baksh Padri (1st ed. 1935), (Lahore, Pakistan). Tafsir-Al-Qur’an, (e-Book). Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  8. Ali, Syed Mujtaba. (Bengali). (1st ed. 1949), (Name of the Publisher of 1st edition is not mentioned). Deshe-Bideshe. (1975) India: Mitra O Ghosh Publishers.

  9. Allworth, Edward A. (1990), The Modern Uzbeks: From the Fourteenth Century to the Present: A Cultural History. (2012) Stanford, USA: Hoover Institution Press Publication.

  10. Ashby, LeRoy. (2006). With Amusement for All: A History of American Popular Culture since 1830. (2006) USA: The University Press of Kentucky.

  11. Atkinson, L. (1st ed. 1863), (John Murray, London). Recollection of Tartar Steppes and their inhabitants, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Bibliotheca Bodleiana.

  12. Atkinson, T. W. (1st ed. 1860), (Hurst & Blackett, London). Travels in the regions of the Upper and the Lower Amoor. (1971) UK: Gregg International Publishers.

  13. Awde Nicholas. & Sarwan, Asmatullah. (1st ed. 2002), (Hippocrene books, NY). Pashto: Dictionary & Phrasebook. (2002) NY, USA: Hippocrene Books.

  14. Awde, Nicholas & Shahribaf, Camilla. (2006). Farsi Dictionary and Phrasebook. NY, USA: Hippocrene Books.

  15. Backstrom, Peter F. & Radloff, Carla F. (1st ed. 1992), (National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Pakistan). Languages of Northern Areas: Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, (vol-II). (2002) Islamabad, Pakistan: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University Press.

  16. Bamiyeh, Mohammed A. (1990). The Social Origins of Islam: Mind, Economy, Discourse. (2003) Minneapolis, USA: University of Minnesota Press.

  17. Bandopadhyay, Susmita. (Bengali). (1st ed. 1995), (Dey’s Publishing, Calcutta, India). Kabuliwalar Bangali Bou. (2004) India: Dey’s Publishing.

  18. Banerjee N. R. (1st ed. 1965), (Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, India). The Iron Age in India. (2003) Delhi, India: Munshiram Manoharlal.

  19. Barsky, Yehudit. (2002). Terrorism Briefing: Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine. (2003) USA: American Jewish Committee.

  20. Basham, A. L. (edit). (1st ed. 1975) (Oxford University Press, London). A Cultural History of India. (2009) New Delhi, India: Oxford India Paperbacks.

  21. Bealey, F. & Johnson, Allan G. (1999). The Blackwell Dictionary of Political Science: A User’s Guide to Its Terms. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

  22. Bellew, H. W. (1st ed. 1867, London). A Dictionary of Pukhtu or Pushtu Language, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  23. Bellew, H. W. (1st ed. 1891), (The Oriental University, Woking). An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  24. Bergne, P. (1st ed. 1988), (I. B. Tauris & Co. London). The Birth of Tajikistan: National Identity and the origin of the Republic. (1988) London, UK: I. B. Tauris.

  25. Biddle, Wendy E. (2008). Immigrant’s Rights After 9/11. (2008) NY, USA: Chelsea Publishers.

  26. Binder, Leonard. (1st ed. 1963), (University of California, Barkley). Religion and Politics in Pakistan, (e-Book). (2001) USA: Digitized by Google, and archived by Hathi Trust Digital Library (

  27. Bird H. E. (1st ed. 1971), (Name of the publisher is unknown). Chess History and Reminiscences, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  28. Bleeck, A. H. (1st ed. 1865), (Bernard Quaritch, London). A Concise Grammar of the Persian Language, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  29. Bradsher, H S. (1985). Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: New and Expanded Edition.  Durham, North California, (1985) USA: Duke University Press.

  30. Brandis, D. (1st ed. 1874), (WM. H. Allen, SW). Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  31. Bregel, Y. (2006). A Historical Atlas of Central Asia. Boston, UK: Brill.

  32. Brown, Archie. (2009). The Rise and Fall of Communism. USA: HarperCollins.

  33. Brown, B. (1st ed. 1923), (Brentano’s, New York). Wisdom of the Egyptians, (e-Book). (2003) NY, USA: Digitized by Global Grey.

  34. Brown, K. (2nd Ed. 1989), (Elsevier, US). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, (vol-VI). USA: Elsevier.

  35. Brown, Louise. (1st ed. 2009), (HarperCollins, USA). The Dancing Girls of Lahore. (2013) USA: HarperCollins.

  36. Bruzin, J. T. P. de. (1997). Persian Sufi Poetry: An Introduction to the Mystical Use of Classical Persian Poems. (1997) UK: Curzon Press.

  37. Burckhardt, T. (2008). Art of Islam. (2008) Indiana, USA: World Wisdom Inc.

  38. Burton John. (2008). Indian Islamic Architecture: Forms and Typologies, Sites, and Monuments. (2008) Boston, USA: Brill Books.

  39. Camus, Albert. (1st ed. 1956), (Alfred A. Knopf Inc, NY). The Rebel. (1991) NY, USA: Vintage International.

  40. Capablanca, Jose R. (1st ed. 1921), (Harcourt Base and World, Inc, USA). Chess Fundamentals, (e-Book). (2010) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  41. Caron, James N. (2009). Cultural Histories of Pashtun Nationalism, Public Participation, Social Inequality in Monarchic Afghanistan, 1905-60. (2009) USA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  42. Cheung, J. (2007). Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. (2007) USA: Brill.

  43. Chittick, William C. (2001). Heart of Islamic Philosophy: The Quest for Self-Knowledge in the Teaching of Afdal Al-Din Kashani. (2001) UK: Oxford University Press.

  44. Clackson, James. (2007). Indo-European Linguistics (An Introduction). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  45. Clarke, H. & Wake, S. (1st ed. 1877), (J. W. Bouton, New York). Serpent and Siva Worship and Mythology, in Central America, Africa, and Asia, (e-Book). (2007) USA: digitized by

  46. Collins, J. J. (2011). Understanding War in Afghanistan. Washington, DC, USA: National Defense University Press.

  47. Cooley, John K. (2000). Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism. (2000) London, UK: Pluto Press.

  48. Dani A. H. & Masson V. M. (1992). History of Civilization of Central Asia, the Dawn of Civilization: From the earliest time to 700 BC, (vol-I). USA: UNESCO Publishing.

  49. Darraj, S. M. (2010). The Collapse of The Soviet Union. NY, USA: Chelsea House Books.

  50. Davis, F. Hadland. (1st ed. 1912), (John Murray, London). Wisdom of the East: The Persian Mystics Jalalu’d-din Rumi, (e-Book). USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  51. Decker Kendall D. (1st ed. 1992), (National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Pakistan). Languages of Chitral: Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, (vol-V). (2004) Islamabad, Pakistan: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University Press.

  52. Dignas, B. & Winter, E. (2007). Rome and Persia at Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals. (2007) UK: Cambridge University Press.

  53. Djan, Noshe. (1st ed. 1986), (Prospect Books, London). Afghan Food and Cookery. (2012) UK: Prospect Books.

  54. Doohovskoy, A. A. (2009). Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Soviet-Afghan War Revisited: Analyzing the Effective aspects of the Counterinsurgency Effort. Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Press.

  55. Douie, Sir J. M. (1st ed. 1974), (Delhi, India). The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir, (e-Book). (2008) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg. (

  56. During, J & Mirabdolbaghi, Z. (1991). The Art of Persian Music. (1991) Washington DC, USA: Mage Publisher.

  57. Dutt, Nalinaksha. (1978). Buddhist Sects in India. (1992) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Private Limited.

  58. Dutt, R. C. (1st ed. 1904), (Longmans, Greens & Co, London). Ancient India: 2000 B.C. to 800 A.D. London, UK: Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  59. Dwight, H. G. (1st Ed. 1918), (Doubleday, Page, and Co, NY). Persian Miniatures, (e-Book). (2005) USA: Digitized by Google.

  60. Edinow, John & David, Edmonds. (2011). Bobby Fischer Goes to War: How the Soviets lost the most Extraordinary Chess Match for all Time. (2011) USA: HarperCollins.

  61. Edwards, David B. (2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. (2002) Los Angeles, USA: University of California Press.

  62. Elliot, Sir H. M. & Dowson, J. (1st ed. 1875), (Trubner & Co. London). History of India, As Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, (vol-VI). (2007) NY, USA: Reprinted by Bibliobazar.

  63. Elliot, Sir H. M. & Dowson, J. (1st ed. 1877), (Trubner & Co. London). History of India, As Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, (vol-VII). (2007) NY, USA: Reprinted by Bibliobazar.

  64. Elliot, Sir H. M. & Dowson, J. (1st ed. 1877), (Trubner & Co. London). History of India, As Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, (vol-VIII). (2007) NY, USA: Reprinted by Bibliobazar.

  65. Elliot, Sir H. M. (1st ed. 1877), (Trubner & Co. London). History of India, As Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, (vol-I), (e-Book). (2007) NY, USA: Digitized by Google.

  66. Encyclopedia Britannica. (2009). Encyclopedia Britannica 2009 Deluxe Edition. 2009 India: Britannica Publication.

  67. Encyclopedia Iranica Online. (Accessed 2005).

  68. Enriquez, C. M. (1st ed. 1921), (Thacker, Spink & Co. Calcutta). The Pathan Borderland, (e-Book). (2003) USA: digitized by Google.

  69. Ewans, Martin. (1st ed. 2001), (Curzon Press, London). Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. (1st Perennial Ed. 2002) NY, USA: Harper Perennial.

  70. Faghfoory, Muhhamad H. (trans). (2003). Kernel of the Kernel: A Shi`i Approach to Sufism: From the Teaching of Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husayni Tihrani. (2003) USA: New York State University Press.

  71. Falkener, E. (1st ed. 1892), (Longmans, Green & Company, London). Games Ancient and Oriental, and How to play them, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  72. Forbes, A. (1st ed. 1892), (Seeley & Co. Ltd, Strand). The Afghan Wars: 1839-42 and 1878-80, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  73.  Foubister, Linda. (2011). Goddess in the Grass: Serpentine Mythology and the Great Goddess. (2011) USA: Spirrea Publishing.

  74. Freedman, Estelle B. (2006). Feminism, Sexuality, and Politics. (2006) North Carolina, USA: Copperline Book Services.

  75. Friedrich, P. (1970). Proto Indo-European Trees: The Arboreal System of a Prehistoric People. Chicago (1970) USA: Chicago University Press.

  76. Gallopin, Gary G. (1994). Beyond Perestroika: Axiology and the New Russian Entrepreneur. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi B. V.

  77. Gardner, Athena. (2000). Witchcraft Dictionary of Craft Terms. (2001) Sedona, USA: Star Rising Publishers.

  78. General Staff Army HQ, India. (1st ed. 1910), (Superintendent Government Printing, India). A Dictionary of Pathan Tribes on the North-West Frontier of India (1910), (e-Book). (2005) Nebraska, USA: Digitized by University of Nebraska-Omaha.

  79. Golitsyn, Anatoliy. (1995). The Perestroika Deception, (e-Book). Moscow, Russia: Name of the Publisher of the Digital Copy is unknown.

  80. Grau, Lester W. & Gress M. A. (2002). The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence, Kansas, USA: University Press of Kansas.

  81. Grau, Lester W. (1998). The Bear Went Over the Mountain: Soviet Combat Tactics in Afghanistan. (1998) NY, USA: Frank Cass Publishers.

  82. Griffin, Michael. (1st ed. 2001), (Pluto Press, USA). Reaping the Whirlwind: Afghanistan, Al Qaida and the Holy War. (2003) Virginia, USA: Pluto Press.

  83. Grose, F. (1st ed. 1811), (Publisher of the 1st edition is not mentioned). 1811 Dictionary of Vulgar Tongue. (2003) USA: Dodo Press.

  84. Gubernatis, Angelo de. (1st ed. 1872), (Trubner & Co, London). Zoological Mythology or the Legend of Animals. (Vol-I) of I & II, (e-Book). (2012) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  85. Guillaume, Alfred. (1954). Islam. London (1998) UK: Penguin Books.

  86. Haim, S. (1st Ed. 1952), (Publisher is not Mentioned). Persian-English Dictionary. (1996) NY, USA: Hippocrene Books.

  87. Hakim abu-Abdullah Moinuddin al-Chishtiyya (1991). The Book of Sufi Healing. (1991) Vermont, USA: Inner Traditions International.

  88. Hampson, N. (1999). Twentieth Century: The History of the World. Bristol (1999) UK: University of Bristol Press.

  89. Hamraaz, A. W. & Danish, M. H. (2010), Linguist Dictionary English to Pashto: Commonly used Military Terms and Acronyms. (2010) Virginia, USA: Torres Publishing Enterprises.

  90. Hanley, Barbara. (1st ed. 1970), (Da Pohane Waziriyat, Ministry of Education, Afghanistan). English Pashto Dictionary, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by US department of Education.

  91. Hasan, S. Nurul. (2005). Religion, State, and Society in Medieval India. Edited and Introduced by Satish Chandra. (2005) New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

  92. Havell, E. B. (1st ed. 1904), (Publisher’s Name is not mentioned in e-Book). A Handbook to Agra and the Taj, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  93. Heper, M. & Criss, N. B. (1st ed. 1994, London). The Historical Dictionary of Turkey. (2009) Lanham, Maryland, USA: The Scarecrow Press Inc.

  94. Hogg, Ian V. (1st ed. 1985), (Chartwell Books Inc, NJ). Illustrated History of Ammunition: Military and Civil Ammunition from the beginnings to the Present Day. (2005) NJ, USA: Quarto Books.

  95. Holt, Frank L. (2005). Into the land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan. Berkley, (2005) USA: University of California Press.

  96. Holt, P. M. (edit). (1970). The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  97. Holt, R. T. & Turner J. E. (1962). Soviet Union: Paradox and Change. (1998) USA: Rinehart and Winston.

  98. Hopkins, Washburn. (1st ed. 1915), (Verlag Von Karl J. Trubner, Strasburg, Germany). Epic Mythology, (e-Book).  (2008) USA: digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  99. Hughes, Thomas P. (1st ed. 1885), (Scribner, Welford & Co, NY) A Dictionary of Islam. (1965) USA: Reference Book Publishers.

  100. Hunter, W. W. (1st ed. 1868), (Trubner & Co. London). A Comparative Dictionary of the languages of India and High Asia, (e-Book). (2002) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  101. Husayn, Ibn Mahmud. (trans) (2002). The Giant Man: A Biography of Mullah Omar by Saif Ul-Haq. (2002) Pakistan: Publisher name is not mentioned.

  102. Jackson, A. V. Williams. (edit). (1st ed. 1906), (Grolier Society, London).  Medieval India from the Mohammedan Conquest to the Reign of Akbar the Great by Stanley Lane-Pool, vol-III of the Nine Volumes of History of India, (e-Book). (2007) USA: Digitized by

  103. Jaffur, Shurreef. & Crooke, William. (1st ed. 1832), (Parbury, Allen & Co, London). Islam in India. (1988), Delhi, India: Atlantic Publisher.

  104. Jafri, S. Husain M. (1st ed. 1975), (Longmans, London). Origin and Early Development of Shi’a Islam, (e-Book). Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  105.  Joppke, Christopher. (1999). Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany, and Great Britain. (2000) UK: Oxford University Press.

  106. Kakar, H. (1995). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and Afghan Response, 1975-1982. (2002) Berkley, California, USA: University of California Press.

  107. Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. (2008). Shari`ah law: An Introduction. London (2009) UK: Oneworld Publications.

  108. Kaye, J. W. (1st ed. 1851), (London). The War in Afghanistan (vol. I & II), (e-Book). USA: Digitized by University of Michigan Libraries.

  109. Keeran, Roger & Kenny, Thomas. (2010). Socialism Betrayed: Behind the Collapse of Soviet Union. (2010) NY, USA: i-Universe Inc.

  110. Kenez, Peter. (1st ed. 1999), (Cambridge University Press, London). A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. (2006) UK: Cambridge University Press.

  111. Kennedy, J. F. (1st Ed. 1964), (Harper & Row, USA). A Nation of Immigrants. (2008) USA: Harper Perennial.

  112. Khalil, Dr. Hanif. (1998). Pashtoon Culture in Pashto Tappa. Islamabad, Pakistan: National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, Quaid-i-Azam University Press.

  113. Khanam, F. (1st ed. 2006), (Godword Books, Delhi). Sufism: An Introduction. (2007) New Delhi, India: Godword Books.

  114. Kiepert, H. (1st ed. 1881), (McMillan and Co. London). A Manual of Ancient Geography, (e-Book). Colonel University (2005) USA: digitized by

  115. Knowles, J. Hinton. (2nd ed. 1893), (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co, London). Folk-Tales of Kashmir. (2004) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  116. Knwoles, J. Hinton. (1st ed. 1885), (Thacker, Spink & Co. Bombay). A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Saying, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Google.

  117. Koshambi, D. D. (1st ed. 1962), (Publisher unknown). Myth and Reality, (e-Book). India: Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  118. Koul, Omkar N. (1st ed. 1992), (Indian Institute of language Study, Delhi, India). A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. (1992) Delhi, India: Indian Institute of language Study.

  119. Koul, Omkar N. (2000). Kashmiri Language, Linguistics, and Culture: An annotated Bibliography. (2000) Mysore, India: Central Institute of Foreign Languages.

  120. Kuiper, K (edit). (2010). Islamic Art, Literature, and Culture. (2010) NY, USA: Britannica Educational Publishing.

  121. Kurian, G. Thomas (edit). (2001). Encyclopedia of World’s nations and Cultures. (2007) NY, USA: InfoBase Publishing.

  122. La Motte, Ellen N. (1st Ed. 1920), (MacMillan Co, NY). The Opium Monopoly, (e-Book). (2010) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  123. Lane, George. (2003). Early Mongol Rules in Thirteen-Century Iran: A Persian Renaissance. (2003) London, UK. Routledge.

  124. Laskar, Edward. (1st ed. 1982), (Charles Franks, London). Chess Strategy, (e-Book). (2012) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  125. Law, B.C. (1st ed. 1926), (Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi). Ancient Indian Tribes. Delhi (1998) India: Motilal Banarsidas Private Limited.

  126. Lee, Stefen J. (1999). Stalin and the Soviet Union. (1999) London, UK: Routledge.

  127. Lehman, Winfred P. (1st ed. 1952), (Texas, USA). Proto-Indo-European Phonology. Texas (2001) USA: University of Texas Press.

  128. Leitner, G. W. (1st ed. 1880), (Albert Press, Lahore). The Bashgeli kafirs and their languages, (e-Book). India: Journal of United Service Institution of India. (2003) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  129. Leitner, G. W. (1st ed. 1881), (Indian Public Opinion Press, Lahore). The Languages and Races of Dardistan: A Comparative Vocabulary and Grammar of the Dardic languages, (e-Book). Publisher of Digitized copy is not mentioned.

  130. Lenorment F. & Chevallier E. (1st ed.1893), (J. B. Lippincott and Co, Philadelphia). A Manual of the Ancient History of the East: To the Commencement of the Median Wars (vol. I), (e-Book). (2003) Philadelphia, USA: Digitized by Google.

  131. Lentin, R. (edit). (2008). Thinking Palestine. (2008) NY, USA: Zed Books.

  132. Levi, Scott C. & Sela, Ron. (2010). Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. (2013) Indianapolis, USA: Indiana University Press.

  133. Lyon, D. G. & Moore, G. F. (1st ed. 1912), (The MacMillan Co, New York). Studies in the Histories and Religions, (e-Book). (2008) USA: digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  134. MacDonnell A. A. & Keith A. B. (1st ed. 1912), (John Murray, London). Vedic Index of names and Subjects, 2 Volumes, (e-Book). (2003)  USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  135. MacDonnell A. A. (1st ed. 1897), (Verlag Von Karl, Trubner, StrassBurg). Vedic Mythology. (bi-lingual, Deutsche–English), (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  136. MacDonogh, G. (2007). After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation. (2007) NY, USA: Basic Books.

  137. Mackenzie, D. N. (1st ed. 1971), (Oxford University Press, UK). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. (1986) London, UK: Oxford University Press.

  138. Macmunn, Lt. Gen. Sir George. (1st ed. 1929), (G. Bell & Sons, Ltd, Edinburgh). Afghanistan: From Darius to Amanullah, (e-Book). (2005) USA: Digitized by Google.

  139. Maggi, W. (1st ed. 2001), (University of Michigan, USA). Our Women are Free: Gender and Ethnicity of Hindukush. (2004) Michigan, USA: Michigan University Press.

  140. Majumdar, R. C. (1990). The History and Culture of Indian People: Mughal Empire, (Vol-VII). (1990) Mumbai, India: Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan.

  141. Majumdar, R. C. (1st ed. 1952), (Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi, India). Ancient India. (2003) Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidas Private Limited.

  142.  Malcolm, Sir John. (1st ed. 1806), (John Murray, London). The History of Persia: From the Most Early Period to the Present time, (2 Volumes set). London, (2004) UK: Cambridge University Press.

  143. Malik, I. (2005). Culture and Customs of Pakistan. (2005) UK: Greenwood Publishers.

  144. Malleson, G. B. (1st ed. 1885), (George Routledge & Sons, London). The Russo-Afghan Questions and the Invasion of India, (e-Book). (2005) USA: Digitized by Google.

  145. Manalai, N. (2010).  A Selection of Modern Pashto Poetry. Delhi, India: BBC Pashto.

  146. Margulies, S. & Mosenfelder, D. (1st ed. 1966), (Learning International, Inc, USA), Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess: by Bobby Fischer, the International Grandmaster. (1972) Stanford, USA: Bantam Books Special Edition.

  147. Marsden, Peter. (2009). Afghanistan: Aid, Armies & Empires. London, UK: I B Tauris.

  148. Marsham, A. (2009). Rituals of Islamic Monarchy: Accession and Succession in the First Muslim Empire. (2009) Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.

  149. Masood-Ul-Hasan, Syed. (1st ed. 1978), (Darussalam Publishers, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). 110 Hadith Qudsi, (e-Book). (2005) UAE: Digitized by

  150. Massica, Collin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge (1991) UK: Cambridge University Press.

  151. McNair, B. (1991). Glasnost Perestroika and the Soviet Media. (2001) London, UK: Routledge.

  152. Misra, S. S. (1st ed. 1992), (Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, India). The Aryan problem, a linguistic approach. ---, The date of the Rig-Veda and the Aryan migration: fresh linguistic evidence. (1999) Pune, India: University of Pune.

  153. Mitrokhin, Vasili & Andrew, Christopher. (Year of 1st edition is not mentioned). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, (e-Book). Publisher of the Digital Copy is unknown.

  154. Modi, J. J. (1st ed. 1927, Bombay). The Asiatic Papers: Part III, (e-Book). Mumbai, India: The British India Press. (2005) USA: Digitized by Google.

  155. Mohan lal. (1st ed. 1846, London), (Special ed. 2012, London). Life of Amir Dost Mohammed Khan of Kabul: with his political proceedings towards the English, Russian, and Persian Governments, including the Victory and Disasters of the British Army in Afghanistan (vol. I & II). Cambridge, (2012), UK: Cambridge University Press.

  156. Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1899), (1st ed. Clarendon Press, London). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, (e-Book). (2002), USA: Digitized by Google.

  157. Morgenstierne, George. (1st ed. 1927), (Skrifter Utgitt av det Norske Vedenskaps Akademi I Oslo, Norway). An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto, (e-Book). (2005) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  158. Mozaffarian, V. (1966). A Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names. (2004) Tehran, Iran: Farhang Moa’ser Publication.

  159. Muller, F. Max. (1st ed. 1859), (Williams and Norgate, London). A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  160. Muller, F. Max. (1st revised ed. 1900), (Trubner & Co, London). Sacred Books of the East, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  161. Murphey, R. (1999). Ottoman Warfare: 1500-1700. Birmingham, UK: UCL Press.

  162. Musharraf, Pervez. (2008). In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. (2008) UK: Free Press.

  163. Naim, C. M. (1st ed. 1975), (University of Chicago, USA). Introductory Urdu, (vol-I & II). Chicago (1999) USA: University of Chicago Press.

  164. Nanzi, Azim & Nanzi, Razia. (2008). The Penguin Dictionary of Islam. (2008) UK: Penguin Books.

  165. Nasiruddin Al-Kahttab (trans). (2007). English Translation of Sunan An-Nasa’I, (vol-I). (2007) UAE: Darussalam Publishers, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  166. Nasr, Sayyid Hussein. (1988). Shi’ism and Sufism: Doctrine, Thought, and Spirituality. (2004) NY, USA: New York State University Press.

  167. Nasr, Sayyid Hussein. (2009). Islam in the Modern World: Challenged by the West, Threatened by Fundamentalism, Keeping faith with Tradition, (e-Book). (2009) USA: HarperCollins e-Books.

  168. Neamet-Ullah and Dorn B. (1st ed. 1829), (London). History of the Afghans, (e-Book). (1836). Great Britain: Oriental Translation Fund. Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  169. Neelis, Jason. (2011). Early Buddhist Tradition and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. (2012) London, UK: Brill.

  170. Nicholson, Reynold A. (trans). (1st ed. 1920), (Macmillan & Co, London). Secret of the Self (Asrar-I Khudi): A philosophical Poem by Sheikh Muhammad Iqbal of Lahore, (e-Book). (1999) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  171. Nourai, Ali. (Year of 1st edition is unknown). An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and other Indo-European Languages, (e-Book). Publisher of the Digital Copy is unknown.

  172. Ochman, Philip. (2012), The Process of Decision Making in Chess, (vol-I): Mastering the Theory, (e-Book). Name of the Publisher of the Digital Copy is unknown.

  173. Ollapally, Deepa M. (2008). The politics of Extremism in South Asia. (First South-Asian edition 2009) New Delhi, India: Cambridge University Press.

  174. Paniker, K. Ayyappa. (1st ed. 1997), (Sahitya Academy, India). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology: Assamese, Bengali, Dogri, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by Google.

  175. Pennell, T. L. (1st ed. 1922), (Seeley Service & Co. Ltd, London). Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontiers. (2007) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  176. Phillips, C. & Axelrod, A. (2005). Encyclopedia of Wars, (3 Volumes Set). Illinois, (2005) USA: Fact on File.

  177. Physicians for Human Rights, USA. (1998). The Taliban’s War on Women: A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan. Boston, USA: Visual Communications.

  178. Pike, A. (1st ed. 1872), (The Standard Printing Co. Louisville, USA). Indo-Aryan Deities and Worship: as contained in the Rig-Veda. USA: Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  179. Pinch, G. (1994). Magic in Ancient Egypt. London, UK: British Museum Press.

  180. Pushalkar, A. D. & Majumdar, R. C. (1st ed. 1951). (Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan, India). The History and Culture of Indian People, (vol-I), the Vedic Age. (1962), India: Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan.

  181. Qarai, Ali Q. (1994). Quran and its Translators. New Delhi, India: Islamic Society.

  182. Rafiee, A. (1st ed. 2001), (Routledge). Colloquial Persian. (2003) USA: Routledge.

  183. Raina, Mohini Qasba. (2013). Kashur: The Kashmiri Speaking People: Analytical Perspective. Trafford SG.

  184. Raverty, Major H. G. (1st ed. 1860), (Trubner & Co. London). A Dictionary of Pukhtu or Pushtu or Language of Afghans, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by University of Chicago.

  185. Raverty, Major H. G. (1st ed. 1868, W. Newman & Co. Calcutta). Selections from the poetry of the Afghans, from Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century. (2007) USA: Digitized by

  186. Recluse, E. (1st ed. 1891), (D. Appleton & Company, New York). The Earth and its Inhabitants, (vol-I), (e-Book). (2006) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  187. Rhys Davids, T. W. (1st ed. 1896), (Susil Gupta India Limited, Calcutta, India). The History and Literature of Buddhism, (e-Book). Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  188. Richards, D. S. (2002). The Annals of the Saljuq Turks: Selections from al-Kamil fi'l-Ta'rikh of Ibn al-Athir (Studies in the History of Iran and Turkey 1000-1700 Ad). London, UK. Routledge.

  189. Rietbergen, Peter (2005). Europe: A Cultural History. NY, USA: Routledge.

  190. Rivoira, G. T. (1st ed. 1918), (Humphrey Milford, London). Moslem Architecture and its Origin and Development, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Colonel University Press.

  191. Rizvi, S. M. (1999). Shi’ism: Imamate and Wilayat, (e-Book). Toronto, USA: Publisher unknown. (2002) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  192. Robertson, Sir George S. (1st ed. 1896), (Lawrence & Bullen Ltd, London). The Kafirs of Hindukush, (e-Book). (2007) USA: digitized by Google.

  193. Rodenbough, Theo. F. (1st ed. 1885), (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, NY). Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian Dispute, (e-Book). (2007) USA: Digitized by Google.

  194. Rodwell, J. M. (1st ed. 1971), (name of the publisher unknown). The Koran, (e-Book). (2009) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  195. Rogers, H. (2005). The Writing System: A Linguistic Approach. USA: Blackwell Publishing.

  196. Roos-Keppel, Captain G. (1st ed. 1908), (Anglo-Sanskrit Press, Lahore). Translation of the Tarikh-I-Sultan Mahmud-I-Ghaznavi, (e-Book). (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  197. Rose, H. A. (1997). A Glossary of Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. (1997) Delhi, India: Nirmal Publisher and Distributors.

  198. Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovitch. (1st ed. 1922), (Clarendon Press, London). Iranians and Greeks in South Russia, (e-Book). (2013) USA: Digitized by Nicholas Pappas.

  199. Roy, Kaushik. (2004). India’s Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. (2004) India: Orient Blackswan.

  200. Roy, Olivier. & Brigot, Andre. (1st ed. 1988), (Prentice Hall, USA). The War in Afghanistan: An Account and Analysis of the Country, Its People, Soviet Intervention and the Resistance. (2003) USA: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

  201. Roy, Olivier. (1995). Afghanistan: From Holy War to Civil War. (1995) USA: Darwin Press.

  202. Roy, Olivier. (1st ed. 1990), (Cambridge Middle East Library, UK). Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. (1990) London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  203. Rumaysah, Abu. (trans). (1994). The Spiritual Cure: An Explanation to Surah al-Fatihah. A Summary of Numerous Classical Commentaries of the Qur’an. Birmingham, UK: Daar-us-Sunnah Publishers.

  204. Sachau, Dr. E. C. (1st ed. 1910), (Trubner & Co. Ltd. London). Alberuni’s India, (vol. I & II). London, UK: Trubner Oriental Series.

  205. Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein. (1981). Islamic Messianism: The Idea of Mahdi in Twelver Shi’ism. Albany, (2001) USA: New York State University Press.

  206. Said, Edward. (1st ed. 1978), (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London). The Orientalism. (2003) London, UK: Penguin Books.

  207. Said, Edward. (1st ed. 1981), (Routledge, London). Covering Islam. (2009) USA: Pantheon Books.

  208. Sakwa, R. (1999). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union 1917-1991. London, UK: Routledge.

  209. Saleh, Mohsen Md. (Year of 1st edition is unknown). History of Palestine: A Methodical Study of a Critical Issue. (2003) Cairo, Egypt: Al-Falah Foundation.

  210. Sastri, R. Shama. (1st ed. 1920), (University of Calcutta Press, India). Evolution of Indian Polity, (e-Book). (2007) USA: Digitized by Microsoft Corporation.

  211. Schimmel, Annemarie. (1975). Mystical Dimension of Islam. North Carolina (1995) USA: University of North Carolina Press.

  212. Schimmel, Annemarie. (1982). As through a veil: Mystical Poetry in Islam. (1999) NY, USA: Columbia State University Press.

  213. Schimmel, Annemarie. (1992). Islam an Introduction. (1999) NY, USA: State University Press New York.

  214. Schulze, R. (1995). A Modern History of Islamic World. London, (1995) UK: I B Tauris Publishers.

  215. Shahrani, M. Nazif. (1st ed. 1972), (University of Washington Press, Seattle). The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. (2002) Seattle, USA: University of Washington Press.

  216. Sharma, Rama Nath. (2003). The Ashtadhyayi of Panini: English Translation of Adhyāyas Seven and Eight with Sanskrit Text, Transliteration, Word-Boundary, Anuvr̥tti, Vr̥tti, Explanatory Notes, Derivational History of Examples, and Indices. (2003), India: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.

  217. Shaw, S. (1st ed. 1976, London). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808, vol-I. (1997) London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  218. Sheikh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi al-Halveti (trans). (1st ed. 1983), (Jerrahi Order, NY). The Book of Sufi Chivalry: Lesson to a Son of the Moment: Futuwwah, of Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Sulami. (2003) NY, USA: Inner Traditions International.

  219. Singh (Dardi), Kripal. (1st ed. 1979), (Punjab University Press). These Kamboj People. (2005) India: Punjab University Press.

  220. Skinner, Kiran K. (2007). Turning Points in Ending the Cold War. (2009) Stanford, USA: Hoover Institution Press Publication.

  221. Soltis, Andrew. (2003). Bobby Fischer Rediscovered. (2003) London, UK: B. T. Batsford Ltd.

  222. Staunton, H. and “Modern Authorities”. (2005). The Blue Book of Chess: Teaching the Rudiments of the Game, and Giving the Analysis of All the Recognized Openings, (e-Book). (2005) USA: Digitized by Project Gutenberg.

  223. Stein, Aurel. (1st ed. 1929), (Macmillan & Co. London). On Alexander’s Track to Indus, (e-Book). (2004). Publisher of digital copy is unknown.

  224. Stein, M. A. (1st ed. 1900), (Archibald Constable and Co. London). Kalhana’s Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmir, (vol-I & II), (e-Book). (2001) USA: Digitized by

  225. Steinglass F. J, Richardson J, Wilkins Sir Charles, Johnson F. (1st Ed. 1957), (Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, London). Comprehensive Persian English Dictionary. (2009) Michigan, USA: University of Michigan.

  226. Steinglass, F. J. (1st ed. 1992), (Asian Educational Services, India). A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary. New Delhi (2005), India: Asian Educational Services.

  227.  Stuart-Smith, Jane. (2004). Phonetics and Philology: Sound change in Italic. (2004) London, UK: Oxford University Press.

  228. Suvorova, A. (1st ed. 1999), (Institute of Oriental Series, Moscow). Muslim Saints of South Asia: The Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries. (2004) NY, USA: Routledge Curzon.

  229. Sykes, Sir P. (1st ed. 1940), (MacMillan & Co, London). A History of Afghanistan, (vol-I). London, UK: Universal Library Press.

  230. Tair, M. N; Barlotti, L. N. & Khattak, R. S. (2009). Rohi Mataluna: Pashto Proverbs, (Revised and Expanded Edition). London, UK: Wipf and Stock Publishers.

  231. Tanner, S. (2002). Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall of the Taliban. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA:  DA CAPO Press.

  232. Tegey, Habibullah. & Robson, Barbara. (1990). Beginning Pashtu: Glossary. (1990) USA: Centre for Applied Linguistics, USA Department of Education.

  233. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. (1st ed. 1935), (Royal Asiatic Society, London).  The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1935, (e-Book). (1995) University of California, USA: Digitized by Google.

  234. The Middle East Institute Viewpoints (2011). The Islamization of Pakistan: 1979-2009, (e-Book). (2011) Washington, DC, USA: digitized by

  235. Their, J. A. (2009). The Future of Afghanistan. Washington, D. C. USA: United States Institute of Peace.

  236. Trail, Ronald L. & Cooper, Gregory R. (1999). Kalasha Dictionary with English and Urdu. (1999) Islamabad, Pakistan: Quaid-i-Azam University Press.

  237. Turner, Howard R. (1995). Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction. (1995) Texas, USA: University of Texas Press.

  238. Tyrkova, A. (1st ed. 1919), (MacMillan & Co, London). From Liberty to Brest-Litovsk, (e-Book). (2004) USA: Digitized by

  239. Vasu, Srisa Ch. (1st ed. 1891), (Allahabad Press, India). Ashtadhyayi of Panini. (2003) USA: Digitized by Google.

  240. Vaughan, Rev. J. (1st ed. 1876), (Longman, Green & Co, London). The Trident, the Crescent, and the Cross: a View of the Religious History of India during the Hindu, Buddhist, Mohammedan, and Christian Periods, (e-Book). University of Princeton, USA.

  241. Wahab, S. & Youngerman, B. (2007). A Brief History of Afghanistan. (2007) USA: InfoBase Publishing.

  242. Waller, John H. (1st ed. 1990), (University of Texas Press). Beyond the Khyber Pass: The Road to British Disaster in the First Anglo-Afghan War. (1993) USA: University of Texas Press Edition.

  243. Wallis Budge E. A. (1st ed. 1901), (Trubner & Co, London). Egyptian Magic, (e-Book). London, UK: Publisher of the Digital copy is unknown.

  244. Wasserman, James. (2010). The Templers and the Assassins: The Militia of Heaven. (2013) Vermont, USA: Inner Traditions International.

  245. Wiesehofer, J. (1996). Ancient Persia: from 550 BC to 650 AD. London, UK: I B Tauris Publishers.

  246. Williams, George M. (2003). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. California (2003), USA: ABC-Cleo Publications.

  247. Williams, Paul. (2003). Mahayana Buddhism: A Doctrinal Foundation. (2003) London, UK: Routledge.

  248. Winwoodreade, W. (1st ed. 1861), (Peter Eckler Publishers, New York). The Veil of Isis, or the Mysteries of the Druids, (e-Book). (2013) NY, USA: Digitized by Global Grey.

  249. Woodburn, Brigd. C. W. (2000). The Bala Hissar of Kabul: Revealing a Fortress-Palace in Afghanistan. (2000) USA: Institute of Royal Engineers.

  250. Zafar, Fareeha. (1st ed. 1991), (ASR Publications, Lahore). Finding Our Way: Reading on Woman in Pakistan. (2008) Lahore, Pakistan: ASR Publications.

  251. Zeilser, Andy. (2008). Feminism and Pop Culture. (2008) California, USA: Seal Press.

Zyar, Dr. M. A. (2000). Angrezi Pashto Siendgai, Pashto Sarbalona aw Starbalona, Garane aw Tsargandane (An English Pashto Dictionary of Prepositions and Postpositions, Expressions, Idioms Translation and Comparison). (2000) Kabul, Afghanistan: Sapi’s Center for Pashto Research and Development.



Articles, Audio-Visuals, Catalogues, Essays, Handbooks,
Interviews, Maps, Published Papers, Published Web Articles,
News Paper Reports and Articles, Television Footages, Blogs and Websites.

  1. Abbott, Nabia. (1st publication 1941), (The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 1-22). Pre-Islamic Arab Queens. (2004) Digitized and Archived by: The University of Chicago Press.

  2. Afghan News Video Footage. (Uploaded in YouTube on May 18, 2012). Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Interview Exclusive Afghan News 17 May, 2012. The Video Footage published by Afghan News in public domain. Available @

  3. Alekozai, S. (2006). Afghan Calendar. Published by

  4. Allbritton, Chriss of Reuters. (October 27, 2011). Pakistan denies BBC report on Taliban links. A Report published by Reuters US. (2011) USA.

  5. Aramesh, Kiarash. (2007). Abortion: An Islamic Ethical View. Published in Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol February 2007. Vol-6 (Suppl. 5): 29-33.

  6. Asian Historical Architecture. (2001). Afghan Village Studies. Center for Afghanistan Studies, University of Nebraska. @

  7. Azizi, Sear. (2002). Website content on famous Afghan Heroes

  8. Baart, John L. G. Esther L. Baart & Muhammad Zaman Sagar. (2004). Names of Plants in Kalam Kohistani, Pakistan. SIL: International and Frontier Language Institute.

  9. Bakshi, S. R, Gajrani, S. & Hari Singh (edit). (2005). Early Aryans to Swaraj. Swarup & Sons.

  10. Belfer Center for Science and International Affair. (2011). An Introduction to Pakistan Military. (June, 2011). Published by Harvard Kennedy School.

  11. Bhadra, Gautam. (1983). Two Frontier Uprisings in Mughal India, in Subaltern Studies-II: Writings on South Asian History and Society, edited by Ranajit Guha. (1983) Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

  12. BNHS. (1997). A Handbook on Birds Classification, Scientific and Common Names used for Birds in Manuscript, (vol-III). (2004) India: Inskipp Publications.

  13. Bortko, Vladimir. (dir). (1990). Afghan Breakdown. A film Produced by Aleksandr Golutva with collaboration of Italy and Russia.

  14. Bose, Sumantra. (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, ---The Fidayeen Phase (1999-2002). (2003) USA: Harvard University Press.

  15. Breckle, Siegmar-W. (2007). Afghan Flora. Arbeitskreis Wüstenökologie, Gesellschaft für Ökologie. @

  16. Breckle, Siegmar-W. (2007). Flora and Vegetation of Afghanistan. Basic and Applied Dryland Research 1, 2 (2007), 155-194, Arbeitskreis Wüstenökologie, Gesellschaft für Ökologie.

  17. Burrow, T. (1958). Sanskrit and Pre-Aryan Tribes and languages. Published in the Bulletin of the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Transaction No. 19, February 1958.

  18. Caland, W. (1932). A Note on the Satapatha Bhrahmana. Published in Acta Orientalica, Vol-10.

  19. Cary, Peter. (2012). The State of Media in Afghanistan: A Report to the Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA). (February, 2012), Published by National Endowment for Democracy.

  20. CBC News, World. (2006). Taliban official admits U.S. strike killed military chief: Report (name of the Reporter is not mentioned). Published in

  21. CGVS en BAA Oostenrijk. (2010). Afghans in Iran and Pakistan: A Joint Report from Austria and Belgium. (November 2010) Brussels, Belgium. @

  22. Chessgames Services LLC. (2002). Petrov Defence: C42

  23. Christian Neef. (2011). Gorbachev Files: Secret Papers Reveal Truth behind Soviet Collapse. A report published in Der Spiegel Online. @

  24. CNN International. (1997). Transcript of Osama Bin Laden’s Interview by Peter Arnett for CNN News Service. (March, 1997) @

  25. Darreh Manalgal, Nūrestān, Afghanistan. @

  26. Defense Language Institute. (2003). Pashto-Basic: (Afghan and Pakistani Both). Foreign language Center, Defense Language Institute, Presidio of Monterey. (2003) California, USA.

  27. Der Spiegel. (2011). ‘They Were Truly Idiots’: An Interview with Michael Gorbachev. Published on 08/06/2011 Der Spiegel Online. @

  28. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism.

  29. Digitized Afghanistan Materials from Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection. (1990). Constitution of Republic of Afghanistan. Published by The Arthur Paul Afghanistan Collection at the University of Nebraska-Omaha, USA.

  30. Discovery World. (Uploaded in YouTube on December 16, 2013). Never Ending War in Afghanistan. A Series of Video Footage published by DW Channel in Public Domain, or in World Wide Web. Available @

  31. Edwards, Lucy Morgan, Huffington Post. (Date of publication is not mentioned). Michael Hughes reviews The Afghan Solution: The inside Story of Abdul Haq, the CIA and How Western Hubris Lost Afghanistan. Available @

  32. Elle International Inc. (2012). A Catalogue of Elle Models upto November 2012. (2012) USA: Special Web publication

  33. Farzad, Lamhe, for Tolo News, Afghanistan. (Uploaded in YouTube on November 12, 2011). A defected Taliban official speaking out. The Video Footage published by Tolo TV in public domain. Available @

  34. Frank Harold. (2006). Bamiyan and Buddhist Afghanistan.

  35. Gall, Carlotta of New York Times. (January 21, 2007). At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge. A Report Published in New York Times. (2007) USA.

  36. General (Ret) Mohammad Yahya Nawroz, Army of Afghanistan and Lester W. Grau Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth. (1996). The Soviet War in Afghanistan: History and Harbinger of Future War? (2001) Published by CIAO, order date: 11/01.

  37. Global Huzra. (2008 accessed). Some Common Pakistani and Pashtoon Boys and Girls Names. An Web publication by

  38. Grierson, G. A. (Digital Dictionary of South-Asia). A Dictionary of Kashmiri Language. Maintained in Public Domain (web) by University of Chicago. @

  39. Gupshup Forum (Pashto). (2010). Some Pashto Proverbs.

  40. Habib, Irfan. (edit). (2002). A Shared Heritage: The Growth of Civilization in India and Iran, --- Iranian Influence on Medieval Indian Architecture by Syed Ali Nadeem Rezavi. (2002). Published by Aligarh Historian Society, Aligarh, India: Tulika publications.

  41. Haq, Dr. Noor Ul. (edit). (2011). Pakistan: A Victim of Terrorism, (Vol-III). A Report @

  42. Iqbal Academy. (2003). A collective Note on Iqbal’s Faqr as per his poems. (2003), Iqbal Review: The Journal of Iqbal Academy, Lahore, Pakistan. Vol-40, No. 2

  43. Iqbal Academy. (Year of Publishing is not mentioned). A Glossary of Sufi Terms. Iqbal Academy, Lahore, Pakistan.

  44. Ismail Sloan. (2003). Dardic languages in Chitral.

  45. Kabuli, Tahir. (Year of publish is not mentioned). Encyclopaedia of Tazik Names.

  46. Kakar, Palwasha. (2006). Tribal Law of Pashtunwali and Women’s Legislative Authority. Published by the Journal: Personal Communication, USA. Vol-4.2, summer 2006.

  47. Kate Jastram & Ms. Marilyn Achiron, UNHCR. (2001). Refugee Protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law. Published by UNHCR, UNESCO Publication.

  48. Kazanas, Nicolas. (2001). Indo-European Deities and the Rig-Veda. Published by journal Omilos Meleton Cultural Institute, Athens. Volume 29, Number 3 & 4, Fall/Winter 2001.

  49. Kazanas, Nicolas. (2011). Rigvedic All-inclusiveness.

  50. Khalilova, Sabohat. (2003). Languages in and around Afghanistan, Resources on Language Policy Group, (Notes for 12-13 December 2003). Pedagogical Materials Project, South Asia Language Resource Center, University of Pennsylvania, USA.

  51. Khan, Mohammad Afzal. (Peshawar, Pakistan). From Chitral to Kafiristan: A Personal Study, (Page 12 to 23).

  52. Khattak, Dr. Raj Wali Shah. (2004). The Flavours of Pashto Music.

  53. Kortland, F. (1990). The Spread of the Indo-Europeans. Published in Journal of Indo-European Studies 18, pp.1-140.

  54. Kotb, Heba G. (Year of Publishing is not mentioned). Sexuality in Islam. A dissertation presented for the Partial fulfilment of Ph. D. On Clinical Sexology, Supervised by Prof. William Granzig, USA.

  55. Kreutzmann, Hermann. (2008). Kashmir and the Northern Areas of Pakistan: Boundary-Making along Contested Frontiers. Published in Erdkunde: vol-62, No. 3, pp. 201-219.

  56. Krzymowski Production. (2004). The Cochrane Gambit

  57. Kynsilehto, Anitta. (edit). (2008). Islamic Feminism: Current Perspective. Tampere Peace Research Institute, Occasional Paper No. 96, 2008. University of Tampere, Finland. @

  58. Magstadt, Thomas M. (1989). Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 117: Gorbachev and Glasnost---A New Soviet Order? Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy. (March, 1989), Kearney State College, USA.

  59. Majeed, Gulshan. (2007). Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts in Pakistan.

  60. Makhmalbaf, Mohsin (2001), Kandahar: Feature Film directed by Mohsin Makhmalbaf.

  61. Malik Asad. (2013). Prostitution spreads as law looks on. @

  62. Margesson, Rhoda. (Congressional Research Service, UNHCR). (2007). Afghan Refugees: Current Status and Future Prospects. (January 26, 2007), CRS Report for Congress: Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress.

  63. Marshall, Dr. A. (for Defense Academy of the United Kingdom). (2006). Phased Withdrawal, Conflict Resolution and State Reconstruction. Published by Conflict Studies Research Centre: Central Asia Series, 06/29.

  64. Marvell, Bill. (2001). Afghanistan's "Hidden Caves" a Myth. A Report Published by Dallas Morning News on October 16, 2001.

  65. Michael Yon. (2008). Holy Brothel. Michael Yon Online Magazine.

  66. Video Footage. (Uploaded on August 24, 2012).  Soviet War in Afghanistan. Available @

  67. Mock, John & Kimberley O`Neil. (1997). Dards, Dardistan, and Dardic: An Ethnographic, Geographic, and Linguistic Conundrum. @

  68. Moghadam, Valentine M. (2002). Islamic Feminism and Its Discontents: Toward a Resolution of the Debate. (Summer 2002). Signs, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 1135-1171. Published by The University of Chicago Press.

  69. Muhammad ibn Rabee' ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee. (1983). The Reality of Sufism in Light of Qur`aan and Sunnah. Prepared and Published for Darul-Hadeeth of Mekkah.

  70. Music on Vinyl Inc. (2011). A Catalogue on collection of Published Vinyl Music Cover upto 2011. (Oct, 2011). Published by Music on Vinyl Inc.

  71. National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA. (2005). Islamic Art and Culture (A Recourse for Teachers). Sponsored by H.R.H. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Ambassador of Saudi Arabia to the United States. Supported by Federal Council for the Arts and Humanities, USA.

  72. National Geographic Society. (Uploaded in YouTube on November 11, 2006). Inside the Taliban, 1-10. A Series of Video Footage published by NGS in public domain, or in World Wide Web. Available @

  73. NuranShah, Ghorjang (edit). (Uploaded in YouTube on March 03, 2013). Former Afghan President Dr. Najibullah's Interview with American investigative journalist Jon Alpert, at Kabul, Afghanistan in 1991. The Video Footage published by Afghan News in public domain. Available @

  74. Omar, Muhammad Suheil. (2002). Iqbal’s Concept of Love. (2002), Iqbal Review: The Journal of Iqbal Academy, Lahore, Pakistan. Vol-39, No. 3.

  75. Parkes, P. (1987). Livestock symbolism and pastoral ideology among the Kafirs of the Hindu Kush. Man Published in N.S. vol-22.

  76. Pashtoon, Zeeya A. (2009). Pashto-English Dictionary. (2009) USA: Dunwoody Press.

  77. Penzl, Herbert. (1st publication 1954), (Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 74-81). Orthography and Phonemes in Pashto (Afghan). (2005). Digitized and Archived by University of Chicago, USA.

  78. Program for Culture and Conflict study, USA and Afghan Information Management Service, Govt. of Afghanistan. (2003). A study of Nuristan. and">

  79. Project-Coordinator: Ronald H. Tuschl, Authors: Adama Sow and Schoresch Davoodi, Editor: Janyce Konkin. (2007). The Political Crisis of Pakistan in 2007. Published in EPU Research Papers: 08/2007. European University Center for Peace Studies (EPU), Stadtschlaining, Austria.

  80. RAWA, Interview with some Prostitutes (1999). Prostitute under the Rule of Taliban. Published in web on August, 2002.

  81. (2004). 'We are hunting Americans like pigs': An Interview with Mullah Muhammad Omar. Published on April 12, 2004.

  82. Satish Chandra. (1st ed. 1980). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals ---Delhi Sultanat 1206-1526, Part-I. Har-Anand Publication Pvt. Ltd. Digitized by Google.

  83. Scetelich, Maria. (Year of Publication of the paper is not mentioned). Sheep and Goat in the Religious Beliefs of Rigvedic People. Leipzig, Berlin.

  84. Scott, Hazel. (2009). Pegs, Cords, and Ghuls: Meter of Classical Arabic Poetry. Department of Linguistics, Swarthmore College.

  85. Secretariat for the Ministry of Mines, BGS Kabul. (2008). Minerals in Afghanistan. (2008) Kabul, Afghanistan. Published by British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK.

  86. Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid. (1995). Q & A for Preaching: Will Men in Paradise have Intercourse with al-Hoor Aliayan? (1995).

  87. SMEDA, NWFP. (2009). Chitral District Profile. Published by Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority: Ministry of Industries and Production, Govt. of Pakistan.

  88. Strand, Richard F. (1997). Maps of Nuristan (copyright: Dr. Richard F. Strand, 1997). Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  89. Strand, Richard F. (1997-1999). Accounts of K’om History and Culture in Kamv’iri. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  90. Strand, Richard F. (1997-1999). Phonological Processes on the Indo-Iranian Frontier. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  91. Strand, Richard F. (1997-2000). Peoples and Languages of Nuristan. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  92. Strand, Richard F. (1997-2000). The K’om. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  93. Strand, Richard F. (1998-2012). The Genealogy of K’om. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  94. Strand, Richard F. (1999). Kinship Systems of the Hindu-Kush. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  95. Strand, Richard F. (1999). Languages of the Hindu-Kush. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  96. Strand, Richard F. (2001-2011). The Sound System of Kamv’iri. Richard Strand’s Nuristan Site, @

  97. Straub, David. (2013). The Ismailis and Kirghiz of the upper Amu Darya and Pamirs in Afghanistan: A Macro-History of Delineating International Borders, ---Chapter II: Imperial Intrigue and the Creation of International Borders from the 1870s to the 1890s, pp. 32-77. (April, 2013), Department of Central Eurasian Studies, Indiana University, USA: UMI, Dissertation Publishing.

  98. Tang, Alisa. (Associated Press Writer). (2008). Sex Thrives in Afghanistan. Associated Press article published on 06.15.2008.

  99. Tellis, Ashley J. (2003). Pakistan and the War on Terror: Conflicted Goals, Compromised Performance. (2003). Published by Carnegie Endowment For International Peace: Washington DC, USA.

  100. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, USA. (2004). Islamic Art and Geometric Design: Activities for Learning. (2004). Mary and James G. Wallach Foundation, USA: Union Hill Printing Co.

  101. Thieme, O. & Suttie, J. M. (2000), (FAO Annual Report on Livestock). Afghanistan: Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile. UNDP/FAO Project AFG/96/007 in April 2000.

  102. UN News Centre. (Date of Publication is not mentioned). Afghanistan and United Nations. Available @

  103. Wild Frontiers Travel Limited. (2006). Under a Pagan Moon: Kalash Winter Festival, Pakistan. @

  104. Wishak Ghar, Afghanistan.

  105. Witzel, M. & Jamison, S. W. (1992). Vedic Hinduism.

  106. Witzel, M. (1999). Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic). Published in Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS), 5-1 (1999), pp. 1-67.

  107. Witzel, M. (2001). Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts. Published in Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS), 7-3 (2001), pp.1-115.

  108. Witzel, M. (2003). Linguistic Evidence for Cultural Exchange in Prehistoric Western Central Asia. Published in Sino-Platonic Papers 129, December 2003, pp. 1-70. @

  109. Witzel, M. (2004). Extract from: The Rigvedic Religious System and its Central Asian and Hindukush Antecedents. A. Griffiths & J.E.M. Houben (eds.). The Vedas: Texts, Language and Ritual. Groningen: Forsten 2004: 581-636.

  110. Witzel, M. (Year of Publishing is not mentioned). Early Sanskritization: Origins and Development of the Kuru State. Published in Electronic Journal of Vedic Study (EJVS).

  111. Witzel, M. (Year of publishing is not mentioned). The Home of the Aryans. Harvard University Press.

  112. World Sufi Group. (2004). The World of Sufi, with a part of Chp IV of Annemarie Schimmel’s book: Mystical Dimension of Islam. University of North Carolina Press &

Zaidi, Abbas. (2002). A Postcolonial Sociolinguistics of Punjabi in Pakistan. (February, 2002). Published by Journal of Postcolonial Cultures and Societies ISSN (USA): 1948-1853 (Electronic).



I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Richard F. Strand (former Professor of Anthropological Linguistics Study, Colonel University, USA) and Dr. Michael Witzel (Professor of Department of South Asian Studies, Harvard University, USA), whose various researches on languages and Socio-Religious characteristics of ancient inhabitants of Hindukush Mountain, the history of Dardic People, and related Indo-European Language Studies, had always kept an open door to me as vast resource of knowledge. I am extremely obliged to their silent guidance by their published books, research and document papers, and websites.

I would like to express my deep gratitude to Prof. Gautam Bhadra (National Professor of India, Former Professor of Department of History, University of Calcutta, India), whose published books and papers on History of Mughal-India helped me to conceptualize critical historical aspects of that period.

I would also like to express my deep gratitude to my respected teacher Dr. Abhijit Mukherjee (Professor of Department of Electrical Engineering, and School of Foreign language, Jadavpur University, India) for his warm and enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques of this work.



Special Thanks to:

Abad Hasan (Afghanistan, USA), Abdullahdi Haydaran (Afghanistan, USA), Abi Mehandi (Afghanistan, USA), Amna Jalalabadi (Afghanistan), Babak Fakeamzedah (Iran, USA), Ehsan-Ullah Faizi (Afghanistan, USA), Hadiya Ayub (Afghanistan, USA), Irina Dvoretskaya (Russia), Javed Bashir (Afghanistan), Maham Khan (Pakistan), Mariyam Kargar (Afghanistan, USA), Dr. Miah Rashiduzzman (BanglaDesh), Mirza Ahmad Hasan Kohistani (Afghanistan), Mohammad Edris Karimi (Afghanistan), Mohebullah Barakzai (Afghanistan), Nadir Md. Ahmadzai (Afghanistan), Nargis Bannu Afghani (Afghanistan), Nikky Kachatryan (Russia, UK), Pir Raham Gir (Pakistan), Princess Homairah (Afghanistan), Qadir Panah (Afghanistan), Sadaf Jan (Afghanistan), Said Asif Imtiyaz (Pakistan, USA), Sardar Mujtaba Roshan (Afghanistan), Sayyid Ismachi Ali Ashque (Tajikistan), Seeta Pamir (Tajikistan, UK), Shamshad Mohmand (Afghanistan), Sonia Khan (Pakistan), Vladimir Trifonov (Russia), Zabiullah Haidary (Afghanistan, USA) Zahira Tanha Zahira (Afghanistan, USA), Zainab Ahmadzai (Pakistan).

My very special thanks to:-

Afghana Music Private Limited, Afghanistan. Al-Zazeera News, South and Central Asia, ( American Broadcasting Company, USA. American Hellenic Institute, USA, ( Amtrak, National Railway Passenger Corporation, USA. AnandaBazar Patrika, India, ( Aqua, USA. Ariana Music, Afghanistan. Baudin Bakery, USA. BBC Pashto, Pakistan & Afghanistan. British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC News, UK. British Chess Magazine, UK. British Council Library, Kolkata, India. CBS Broadcasting, Inc, USA. CNN, USA. Coca-Cola Inc, USA. Der Spiegel, Germany, ( Edinburgh Chess Cub, Edinburgh, Scotland. Embassy of United States Kabul, Afghanistan. Facebook, Inc, USA, ( Fédération Internationale des échecs (World Chess Federation), Greece. General Electric Company, USA. Google Inc, USA, ( Greek Corner Restaurant, NY, USA. Hard Rock Cafe, NY, USA. Harvard University, USA. Hashoo Group (Hotel), Pakistan. Hotel Chanakyapuri, India. Hotel Noorjahan, Kandahar, Afghanistan. Hubbly Bubbly Hookah Lounge, AZ, USA. Indian Railways, India. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, USA. Iqbal Academy, Lahore, Pakistan. J A B Stuart School, USA. Jadavpur University, India, ( Jammu & Kashmir Tourism Development Corporation, India. ( Kabul University, Afghanistan, ( L’Oreal S.A. Land Rover, UK. Leopold Café, Mumbai, India. Levi Strauss & Co, USA. M&M’s, USA. Macy Mall, USA. Marshal Chess Club, NY, USA. Mercedes-Benz, USA. Ministry of Information and Culture, Afghanistan, ( Ministry of Tourism, Pakistan. Mr. Viswnathan Anand. Mrs. Nazia Hasan, USA. MTV NY, USA. National Broadcasting Company, USA. National Geographic Society, National Geographic Channel, USA. National Highway Authority, Pakistan. New Yorker, USA. Nirvana, USA. Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, USA. Open Magazine ( Pelican, Switzerland. Philip Morris International, USA. Pima Elementary School, AZ, USA. Playboy Enterprises, USA. Pravda, Russia. ( Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Radio Kabul, Afghanistan. Ramkrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, India. RCA Corporation, USA. Renault SA, France. Revolutionary Association of Woman of Afghanistan, ( Royal Enfield, India. Samaa TV, Pakistan. Saregama India Limited, India. Scribd Inc, USA, ( Sensei’s Library, Japan, ( Serena Hotel Groups, (Asia), Afghanistan. Sony Corporation, Japan. The Guardian, UK. The Huffington Post, UK. The Kabul Times, Afghanistan. The New York Times, USA. The Telegraph, India, ( The Times of India, India. Time Incorporated, USA. Tolo TV, Afghanistan. Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan. Twitter, Inc, USA, (, UN News Centre, United Nations. University of Calcutta, India, ( University of California, Barkley, USA. University of Chicago, USA. University of Peshawar, Pakistan. University of Tehran, Iran, ( Volkswagen, Germany. (Wikimedia Foundation), USA.